10 secrets of the universe, revealed by the telescope "Hubble"
A. The universe is expanding much faster than previously thought dominant theory of the universe says that there was a "Big Bang" and the specified time, it expands. Prior to the "Hubble", most astronomers believed that the universe will continue to grow, but like a car without fuel, and will move out of inertia more and more slowly, losing speed as it moves. observing supernovae, "Hubble" determined the distance between galaxies, which continued to move away from each other. And scientists have discovered that instead of slowing down, the expansion of the universe is really going on with the acceleration. The edges of the universe continue to diverge from the "center" faster and faster. 2. "Hubble" has given us the most accurate at the time of today's age of the universe Before the "Hubble" was sent into orbit, the science could only speculate about the approximate age of the universe - around 10-20 billion years. But thanks be satisfied, "Hubble" Measurements of luminosity 31 variable stars - Cepheids, it became possible to calculate the rate of expansion of the universe that gave us a much more accurate estimate of its age - 13.7 billion years, plus or minus a few hundred million. 3. Hubble Deep Field - Photo thousands of galaxies that billions of years before the "Hubble," we could not study the most distant galaxy from us which have emitted light billions of years ago. But, taking a risk and focusing the camera, "Hubble" in a selected area of space in 10 days, the researchers were Hubble Deep Field. HDF - this image more than 3 thousand galaxies of different shapes, sizes and luminosities. The study of this image has given astronomers a glimpse of the history of the universe, and allows us to see how there are growing and eventually die of the galaxy. 4. Find out the true nature of the brightest celestial body in the universe: quasar When quasars were discovered, their nature remained largely unknown. They have an incredible luminosity, which forced the astronomers assume that they are looking at a star - but these objects were too far from Earth that is in our galaxy. With the "Hubble" has been established that quasars are located in the center of the galaxy and get energy from the friction produced by a supermassive black hole. The number of accumulated and released the energy of light and makes the brightest quasar known objects in the universe. 5. We are reaching the point in order to understand the role of black holes in galaxy formation during the observations of quasars, astronomers 'Hubble' came to the conclusion that in the midst of all the galaxies with bright centers were supermassive black holes. And the black hole mass (measured by the rate of fall of matter into it, given that nothing can escape from a black hole) is associated with the stellar mass condensations in the center of the galaxy. This apparently means that the formation of galaxies associated with the formation of the center in a black hole - they do not appear separately. 6. Gas and dust are no longer obscured star formation Some of the most fantastic photos of "Hubble" captured the contracting cloud of dust and gas that eventually form new stars. Earlier images of clouds could show only spewing out new stars jet dust, rather than rotating "protoplanetary" disks, which became the center of a young planetary body. But thanks to the "Hubble", astronomers were able to see these spinning disks and through them gained new knowledge about how stars were formed . The new stars and planetary systems are very susceptible to their environment, which was indistinguishable until the 1995 photographs of the Orion Nebula. 7. It became possible to calculate the composition of the atmosphere of planets outside our solar system, "Hubble" may find extrasolar planets by observing the slight decrease in luminosity, which occurs when the planet passes between the telescope and its parent star. These intervals are called "transits" allow "Hubble" to make the first measurements of atmospheric composition of these planets - some of which contain sodium, carbon, oxygen and other elements with which we are familiar on Earth. opening of "Hubble" of methane, the first known organic molecule on extrasolar planets is the first step towards discovery of extraterrestrial life. 8. Collisions in space give us a better understanding of our own cosmic environment - in addition, they are simply awesome in 1994, "Hubble" shot-blow account of a comet collision with the surface of Jupiter, which, according to astronomers, was to be an exceptional event, even across many generations. But in 2009, in Jupiter, a comet crashed into another, thus suggesting that such cases may not be quite so rare as previously believed (according to the original hypothesis - about once per thousand years). Having the opportunity to observe impact of a comet (as in the visible and ultraviolet light), astronomers noticed that the composition of Jupiter's less like the sun than previously thought. This availability of sites for viewing the fall immediately after the collision, will help us to improve our knowledge of the immediate and distant planets. 9. Revealed the true reason for the strange gamma-ray bursts Gamma-ray bursts were first observed by satellites, which were to monitor nuclear explosions. Instead, they discovered daily, randomly occurring flash capacity of 10 million billion suns. was unclear why some supernova explosions produce gamma-ray emitting the event, and others - no. From these "Hubble" data it seems that black holes and gamma-ray bursts are generated by stars with lower metal content. Therefore, the detection of gamma radiation can talk about what you witnessed the birth of a new black hole. 10. We saw the death of the birth of stars and planetary nebula With the "Hubble" was investigated by a number of dying stars that looked at differently depending on their size. The stars of medium size dump their gas and become white dwarfs and massive stars collapse, and there is a supernova. These phenomena take many years, not moments. As for the white dwarfs, they emitted hot gas forms a beautiful nebula, as astronomers study a special case of a supernova in 1987. the ongoing results of years of observations of supernovae and planetary nebulae show that such transformations take place during a series of explosions. Tracking the life cycle of these stars can help us understand how these events have ended, and they continue to grow throughout the remainder of the time throughout the universe.